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Krongrad A, Bai G: c-fos promoter insensitivity to phorbol ester and possible role of protein kinase C in androgen-independent cancer cells. Cancer Res 54:6073-7, 1994

In exploring the biological basis of androgen-independent prostate cancer, we observed serum-independent growth of androgen-independent cells. We then discovered that in androgen-independent but not androgen-dependent cells, the serum-responsive gene c-fos is insensitive to phorbol esters, which regulate c-fos through the same mechanisms as serum. Transient expression of protein kinase C, through which phorbol esters activate c-fos, was sufficient to desensitize c-fos in androgen-dependent cells. Incubation in protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine killed androgen-independent but not androgen-dependent cells. This finding implicates protein kinase C activity in androgen-independent prostate cancer and suggests novel therapeutic strategies.